The story behind the footage reveals an interesting confluence of history and visual rhetoric. This essay considers how the Owens footage was put to work as both an example of American exceptionalism in one case and a transcendent appeal designed to mitigate the stigma of Nazi ideology in another. The principles of visual rhetoric elucidate the ways in which imagery like the Owens footage is purposefully packaged to portray these types of messages.
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Journal Sport in History Volume 38, - Issue 1. Submit an article Journal homepage. Pages Because there had been no further studies of the subway since , one third of the fleet was out of use during rush hours due to serious technical defects. In addition, signs were fitted incorrectly, and spare parts were missing or were bought in too large quantities, could not be found, or could not be installed due to lack of repairmen. The New York City Subway tried to keep its budget balanced between spending and revenue, so deferred maintenance became more common, which drew a slow but steady decline of the system and rolling stock.
Furthermore, the workers were consolidated into the Transport Workers Union in A pension was set up, and workers were allowed to retire after 20 years of service without any transitional period. About a third of the most highly experienced staff immediately retired, resulting in a large shortage of skilled workers. Between and over 3, subway cars were overhauled and fitted with air conditioning. In this way, comfort, reliability and durability would be increased in order to postpone new purchases.
The TA only replaced the oldest cars each division, so that despite the fact that the fleet was overaged, the TA bought only 1, new vehicles. Increased patrols and fences around the train yards offered better protection against graffiti and vandalism. Within ten years the tracks were thereby renewed almost systemwide. The Williamsburg Bridge and the Manhattan Bridge, which had strong corrosion damage, were refurbished over the years. The renovation of the stations was initially limited to security measures, fresh paint, new lighting and signs, but the TA also tried to improve the service that had been neglected.
This ranged from new uniforms and training for the staff to correct destination signs on the rolling stock. Some subway services were also adapted to the changing needs of customers.
At night, the railway police and members of the citizens' initiative Guardian Angels , formed in , patrolled in the subway trains. On May 1, , a standard maximum interval of 20 minutes between trains was put into place during late nights, with the exception of the Rockaway lines where it was 24 minutes.
Some lines had service run as infrequently as 30 minutes.
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Earlier in , local service on the BMT Jamaica Line was extended to Crescent Street from Eastern Parkway, and rush hour service was increased to run every 5 minutes. Switching at a junction north of 96th Street, delayed service as trains from the Lenox Avenue Line which ran local switched from the express to the local, while trains from the Broadway Branch that ran express switched from the local to the express. This bottleneck was removed on February 6, All Broadway trains were locals, and all Lenox Avenue trains were expresses, eliminating the need to switch tracks.
All 3 trains began to run express south of 96th Street on that date running to Brooklyn. Trains began to be branded as Hi-Speed Locals, being as fast as the old express service was with 8-car trains consisting of new R21s and R22s on the line.
On November 15, , the express platforms at Lexington Avenue—59th Street opened to reduce transfer congestion at Grand Central—42nd Street , and to allow transfers between the express trains and BMT trains to Queens. Even before the express platforms were added, this station was the busiest on the line. A summary of the new subway lines and new subway related expenditures proposed in phase I of the "Program for Action" follows: .
Phase II of the "Program for Action" contained the following plans: .
Also as part of the Program for Action, existing elevated structures were to be replaced with new subways. Because the early subway systems competed with each other, they tended to cover the same areas of the city, leading to much overlapping service. The amount of service has actually decreased since the s as many elevated railways were torn down, and finding funding for underground replacements has proven difficult.
The subway's decline began in the s and continued through the late s. In , the city's graffiti epidemic surged to levels never seen before; nearly every subway car was tagged with graffiti by the end of the year. In the winter of , the car-washing program was stopped. In September , exterior washing with an acid solution started, but the solution was found to have caused more harm than good.
As graffiti became associated with crime, many demanded that the government take a more serious stance toward it, particularly after the popularization of the Fixing Broken Windows philosophy in An extensive car-washing program in the late s ensured the elimination of graffiti throughout the system's rolling stock. The years between and became known as the "die hard" era. The previous elaborate "burners" on the outside of cars were now marred with simplistic marker tags which often soaked through the paint.
By June , ridership had fallen to levels, and ridership was decreasing at an average of 25 million passengers per year. In January , to both save money and increase safety, subway trains were shortened during off hours. Ridership kept dropping rapidly; it dropped by 25 million passengers between June 30, , and June 30, , and within a span of eight years, million passengers stopped using the subway. Some estimated that if this rate of decline were to continue, there would be no passengers on the system by As a result of declining ridership, the number of subway cars used during the morning rush hours dropped from 5, in to about 4, in Headways were increased, too, so people were waiting longer periods of time for shorter trains that were intensely crowded.
Headways on the A, D, N and RR services were 5 minutes during rush hours or 12 trains per hour in ; they were 4 minutes or 15 trains per hour in The trips were to be discontinued to cut operating deficits. On December 17, , the MTA announced that a 4.
The cutbacks, the third of the year, trimmed train runs from the previous 6, Service was most drastically reduced on the Lexington Avenue Line, with seven fewer express trains during the morning rush hour heading southbound. The cuts were the first of a three-phase program that was put in effect between January and July Other subway services were changed or discontinued as part of the plan.
In April it was planned that all rush hour 1 trains would begin running to nd Street ; these runs had previously terminated at th Street. During midday hours, trains on the 1 were to be shortened to five cars. Manhattan-bound N trains were to continue running express, while in the opposite direction they would run local. N trains would alternate between terminating at Whitehall Street or Coney Island during rush hours. The K was planned to be discontinued in July. The changes that were supposed to take place in July instead took effect on August In there were 8, daily trips, and on August 30, , there were 6, daily trips.
The cuts, planned to take effect in January , would have eliminated service on the Bowling Green—South Ferry Shuttle, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, and AA service, which was to be replaced by the A during late nights. GG service would be cut back to Queens Plaza during late evenings and late nights. B and N service would have been cut back to shuttles, running between 36th Street and Coney Island on their respective lines.
It was also proposed that during off-peak hours car trains would be cut to eight, six or four car trains. The subway had been gradually neglected since the s, and its situation had been exacerbated by the low fare. On May 20, , two people died at the Jackson Heights—Roosevelt Avenue station in the worst subway collision since the Times Square derailment. Following the accident, New York Magazine highlighted the state of the subway system in a lengthy expose.
About One out of three IRT stations did not have running water in case of emergency. In addition, the system's staff were leaving in massive numbers, with 5, workers having retired or quit from early to mid In the late s, hundreds of slow speed orders were found throughout the system due to the risk of derailments.
Graffiti covered every single subway car in the system, and the number of available cars for rush hour services continued to drop, from 5, in , then to 5, in , and finally to 4, in May Maintenance on rolling stock was so bad that by , two hundred retired R16 cars were put back into service to replace the newest rolling stock in the system, the R Most R46s had cracked trucks, and were only allowed to operate during rush hours as they were sent for rehabilitation. The worst subway station overall, in terms of crime and its condition, was Grand Central—42nd Street , while the worst elevated station was Metropolitan Avenue in Queens.
The subway cars in the worst condition were the R10s. The track in the worst shape was that of the BMT Sea Beach Line , which had more or less the same infrastructure as when it opened in The MTA made improvements to tunnels, tracks, switches and signals. It had to do this with a smaller amount of funding than available in the past due to the fiscal crisis, and keep the subway operating 24 hours a day. However, it had a major public relations problem. As people didn't see any improvements, they assumed that crime was out of control, and for a while it was, but this assumption was maintained even during periods of reduced crime.
In an attempt to alleviate the crime situation and extend the service life of rolling stock, half-length trains began running during off-peak hours.