In the following days, Pepys witnessed looting, disorder, and disruption. On 7 September, he went to Paul's Wharf and saw the ruins of St Paul's Cathedral, of his old school, of his father's house, and of the house in which he had had his stone removed. The diary gives a detailed account of Pepys' personal life, he liked wine, plays, and the company of other people. He also spent time evaluating his fortune and his place in the world, he was always curious and often acted on that curiosity, as he acted upon almost all his impulses.
Periodically, he would resolve to devote more time to hard work instead of leisure. For example, in his entry for New Year's Eve, , he writes: "I have newly taken a solemn oath about abstaining from plays and wine…" The following months reveal his lapses to the reader; by 17 February, it is recorded, "Here I drank wine upon necessity, being ill for the want of it. Pepys was one of the most important civil servants of his age, and was also a widely cultivated man, taking an interest in books, music, the theatre and science, he was passionately interested in music; he composed, sang, and played for pleasure, and even arranged music lessons for his servants.
He played the lute , viol , violin, flageolet , recorder and spinet to varying degrees of proficiency,  he was also a keen singer, performing at home, in coffee houses, and even in Westminster Abbey. Pepys was an investor in the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa , which held the monopoly in England on trading along the west coast of Africa in gold , silver , ivory and slaves. Propriety did not prevent him from engaging in a number of extramarital liaisons with various women that were chronicled in his diary, often in some detail, and generally using a cocktail of languages English, French, Spanish and Latin when relating the intimate details; the most dramatic of these encounters was with Deborah Willet , a young woman engaged as a companion for Elisabeth Pepys.
On 25 October , Pepys was surprised by his wife as he embraced Deb Willet; he writes that his wife "coming up suddenly, did find me imbracing the girl con [with] my hand sub [under] su [her] coats; and endeed I was with my main [hand] in her cunny. I was at a wonderful loss upon it and the girl also Pepys first met Knep on 6 December , he described her as "pretty enough, but the most excellent, mad-humoured thing, and sings the noblest that I ever heard in my life.
Knep provided Pepys with backstage access and was a conduit for theatrical and social gossip; when they wrote notes to each other, Pepys signed himself "Dapper Dickey", while Knep was " Barbry Allen " that popular song was an item in her musical repertory. The diary was written in one of the many standard forms of shorthand used in Pepys' time, in this case called tachygraphy and devised by Thomas Shelton , it is clear from its content that it was written as a purely personal record of his life and not for publication, yet there are indications that Pepys took steps to preserve the bound manuscripts of his diary.
He wrote it out in fair copy from rough notes, and he also had the loose pages bound into six volumes, catalogued them in his library with all his other books, and is likely to have suspected that eventually someone would find them interesting. This tree resumes, in a more compact form and with a few additional details, trees published elsewhere in a box-like form,   it is meant to help the reader of the Diary and also integrates some biographical informations found in the same sources.
Pepys' health suffered from the long hours that he worked throughout the period of the diary. Specifically, he believed that his eyesight had been affected by his work,  he reluctantly concluded in his last entry, dated 31 May , that he should completely stop writing for the sake of his eyes, and only dictate to his clerks from then on,  which meant that he could no longer keep his diary.
Pepys and his wife took a holiday to France and the Low Countries in June—October ; on their return, Elisabeth fell ill and died on 10 November Pepys never remarried, but he did have a long-term housekeeper named Mary Skinner who was assumed by many of his contemporaries to be his mistress and sometimes referred to as Mrs.
In he became an Elder Brother of Trinity House and served in this capacity until ; he was Master of Trinity House in — and again in — In he was involved with the establishment of the Royal Mathematical School at Christ's Hospital , which was to train 40 boys annually in navigation, for the benefit of the Royal Navy and the English Merchant Navy.
In he was appointed a Governor of Christ's Hospital and for many years he took a close interest in its affairs. Among his papers are two detailed memoranda on the administration of the school. In , after the successful conclusion of a seven-year campaign to get the master of the Mathematical School replaced by a man who knew more about the sea, he was rewarded for his service as a Governor by being made a Freeman of the City of London , he also served as Master without ever having been a Freeman or Liveryman of the Clothworkers' Company At the beginning of Pepys was elected MP for Harwich in Charles II's third parliament which formed part of the Cavalier Parliament , he was elected along with Sir Anthony Deane , a Harwich alderman and leading naval architect, to whom Pepys had been patron since By May of that year, they were under attack from their political enemies.
Pepys resigned as Secretary to the Admiralty, they were imprisoned in the Tower of London on suspicion of treasonable correspondence with France, specifically leaking naval intelligence. The charges are believed to have been fabricated under the direction of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury. Though he had resigned from the Tangier committee in , in he was sent to Tangier to assist Lord Dartmouth with the evacuation and abandonment of the English colony. After six months' service, he travelled back through Spain accompanied by the naval engineer Edmund Dummer , returning to England after a particularly rough passage on 30 March From to , he was active not only as Secretary for the Admiralty, but also as MP for Harwich, he had been elected MP for Sandwich , but this election was contested and he immediately withdrew to Harwich.
When James fled the country at the end of , Pepys' career also came to an end. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in and served as its President from 1 December to 30 November Isaac Newton 's Principia Mathematica was published during this period, and its title page bears Pepys' name.
There is a probability problem called the " Newton—Pepys problem " that arose out of correspondence between Newton and Pepys about whether one is more likely to roll at least one six with six dice or at least two sixes with twelve dice,  it has only recently been noted that the gambling advice which Newton gave Pepys was correct, while the logical argument with which Newton accompanied it was unsound. He was imprisoned on suspicion of Jacobitism from May to July and again in June , but no charges were ever successfully brought against him.
After his release, he retired from public life at age 57, he moved out of London ten years later to a house in Clapham owned by his friend William Hewer , who had begun his career working for Pepys in the admiralty. Pepys lived there until his death on 26 May , he had no children and bequeathed his estate to his unmarried nephew John Jackson. Pepys had disinherited his nephew Samuel Jackson for marrying contrary to his wishes; when John Jackson died in , Pepys' estate reverted to Anne, daughter of Archdeacon Samuel Edgeley, niece of Will Hewer and sister of Hewer Edgeley, nephew and godson of Pepys' old Admiralty employee and friend Will Hewer.
Hewer was also childless and left his immense estate to his nephew Hewer Edgeley consisting mostly of the Clapham property, as well as lands in Clapham, London, Westminster and Norfolk on condition that the nephew and godson would adopt the surname Hewer. On the death of Hewer Edgeley-Hewer in , the old Hewer estate went to Edgeley-Hewer's widow Elizabeth, who left the acre hectare estate to Levett Blackborne, the son of Abraham Blackborne, merchant of Clapham, and other family members, who later sold it off in lots.
Lincoln's Inn barrister Levett Blackborne also later acted as attorney in legal scuffles for the heirs who had inherited the Pepys estate. Pepys was a lifelong bibliophile and carefully nurtured his large collection of books, manuscripts, and prints. At his death, there were more than 3, volumes, including the diary, all carefully catalogued and indexed; they form one of the most important surviving 17th-century private libraries ; the most important items in the Library are the six original bound manuscripts of Pepys' diary, but there are other remarkable holdings, including: .
Pepys made detailed provisions in his will for the preservation of his book collection, his nephew and heir John Jackson died in , when it was transferred intact to Magdalene College, Cambridge , where it can be seen in the Pepys Building. The bequest included all the original bookcases and his elaborate instructions that placement of the books "be strictly reviewed and, where found requiring it, more nicely adjusted". Motivated by the publication of Evelyn's Diary , Lord Granville deciphered a few pages.
Others had apparently succeeded in reading the diary earlier, perhaps knowing about the key, because a work of quotes from a passage of it. Wheatley , drawing on both his predecessors, produced a new edition in  —, revised in , with extensive notes and an index.
All of these editions omitted passages chiefly about Pepys' sexual adventures which the editors thought too obscene ever to be printed. Wheatley, in the preface to his edition noted, "a few passages which cannot possibly be printed, it may be thought by some that these omissions are due to an unnecessary squeamishness, but it is not really so, and readers are therefore asked to have faith in the judgement of the editor. Various single-volume abridgements of this text are also available. The first unabridged recording of the diary as an audiobook was published in by Naxos AudioBooks. On 1 January Phil Gyford started a weblog , pepysdiary.
Steve Coogan played Pepys; the film Stage Beauty concerns London theatre in the 17th century and is based on Jeffrey Hatcher 's play Compleat Female Stage Beauty , which in turn was inspired by a reference in Pepys' diary to the actor Edward Kynaston , who played female roles in the days when women were forbidden to appear on stage. Pepys is a character in the film and is portrayed as an ardent devotee of the theatre.
Hugh Bonneville plays Pepys. Pepys has also been portrayed in various other film and television productions, played by diverse actors including Mervyn Johns , Michael Palin , Michael Graham Cox and Philip Jackson. BBC Radio 4 has broadcast serialised radio dramatisations of the diary. In the s it was performed as a Classic Serial starring Bill Nighy ,  and in the s it was serialised as part of the Woman's Hour radio magazine programme.
A fictionalised Pepys narrates the second chapter of Harry Turtledove 's science fiction novel A Different Flesh serialised —, book form ; this chapter is entitled "And So to Bed" and written in the form of entries from the Pepys diary. The entries detail Pepys' encounter with American Homo erectus specimens imported to London as beasts of burden and his formation of the "transformational theory of life", thus causing evolutionary theory to gain a foothold in scientific thought in the 17th century rather than the 19th.
Several detailed studies of Pepys' life are available. Arthur Bryant published his three-volume study in —, long before the definitive edition of the diary, but, thanks to Bryant's lively style, it is still of interest. In Richard Ollard produced a new biography that drew on Latham's and Matthew's work on the text, benefitting from the author's deep knowledge of Restoration politics.
The most recent general study is by Claire Tomalin , which won the Whitbread Book of the Year award, the judges calling it a "rich, thoughtful and deeply satisfying" account that unearths "a wealth of material about the uncharted life of Samuel Pepys". Freedom of the City The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected citizens freedom from serfdom , the tradition still lives on in countries such as the United Kingdom , Australia , South Africa and New Zealand — although today the title of "freeman" confers no special privileges; the Freedom of the City can be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the city's trust.
This allows them the freedom to parade through the city, is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry; the honour was sometimes accompanied by a "freedom box", a small gold box inscribed to record the occasion. In some countries, such as the United States , esteemed residents and visitors may instead be presented with the Key to the City, a symbolic honour. Other US cities award Honorary Citizenship , with just a certificate. Freedom of the City is an ancient honour granted to martial organisations, allowing them the privilege to march into the city "with drums beating, colours flying, bayonets fixed".
This honour dates back to ancient Rome which regarded the " pomerium ", the boundary of the city, as sacred. Promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering it, resigned their imperium upon crossing it. An exception was made for victory celebrations, during which the victorious general would be permitted to enter for one day only.
Under the Republic, soldiers lost their status when entering, becoming citizens: thus soldiers at their general's triumph wore civilian dress. Weapons were banned inside the pomerium for religious and traditional reasons. Similar laws were passed by other European cities throughout the Medieval era, to protect public security and civic rights against their own king's troops; as a result, soldiers would be forced to camp outside the walls of the city during the winter months.
The Freedom of the City was an honour granted only to troops which had earned the trust of the local populace, either through some valiant action or by being a familiar presence. Today, martial freedom of the city is an ceremonial honour bestowed upon a unit with historic ties to the area, as a token of appreciation for their long and dedicated service.
The awarding of the Freedom is accompanied by a celebratory parade through the city. A more common freedom of the city is connected to the medieval concept of "free status", when city and town charters drew a distinction between freemen and vassals of a feudal lord; as such, freemen pre-date'boroughs'. Early freedom of the boroughs ceremonies had great importance in affirming that the recipient enjoyed privileges such as the right to trade and own property, protection within the town. In modern society, the award of honorary freedom of the city or borough tends to be ceremonial, given by the local government in many towns and cities on those who have served in some exceptional capacity, or upon any whom the city wishes to bestow an honour.
Before parliamentary reform in , freedom of the city or town conferred the right to vote in the'parliamentary boroughs' for the MPs; until the Municipal Corporations Act the freemen were the exclusive electorate for some of the boroughs. These two acts together curtailed the power of the freemen and extended the franchise to all'householders'. The private property belonging to the freemen collectively was retained. The freemen of York and Newcastle upon Tyne still own considerable areas within their towns, although the income is given to support charitable objects; the Local Government Act preserved freemen's rights.
The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act removed any restrictions entitling only men to be freemen. Today, the grant of honorary freedom in the United Kingdom is governed by the Local Government Act ; the Act enabled the councils of cities, royal boroughs and parishes with the status of a royal town to confer the status of honorary freeman on "persons of distinction and persons who have, in the opinion of the council, rendered eminent services" to the local area. The Act extends the ability to grant the status of honorary freeman to any county, district, town, parish or community council.
A special meeting of the council can grant the honour by passing a resolution with a two-thirds majority at a specially convened meeting. The exact qualifications for borough freedom differ between each city or town, but fall into two categories,'patrimony' and'servitude'.
For example, in Chester, only the children or grandchildren of freemen may apply for admission. In York, this extends to great- and great-great-grandchildren, apprenticeship to a freeman of the city will allow admission.
A facsimile of part of the first entry in the diary. This is his first letter to Mordaunt. Compounded in Cal. Whitechapel is a district in London, England. Trease, Geoffrey
In Great Grimsby , the widow of a freeman passes his rights to her second husband, who retains the privilege after either divorce from or death of the widow; the borough freedom is strongest in York, Newcastle upon Tyne and Coventry. Durham and Northampton have extended their admission criteria to those who have served an apprenticeship. Portsmouth Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, with a total population of , residents. The city of Portsmouth is nicknamed Pompey and is built on Portsea Island , a flat, low-lying island measuring 24 square kilometres in area, just off the south-east coast of Hampshire.
Uniquely, Portsmouth is the only island city in the United Kingdom , is the only city whose population density exceeds that of London. Portsmouth is located 70 miles south-west of London and 19 miles south-east of Southampton. With the surrounding towns of Gosport , Fareham and Waterlooville , Portsmouth forms the eastern half of the South Hampshire metropolitan area, which includes Southampton and Eastleigh in the western half.
Portsmouth's history can be traced back to Roman times. A significant naval port for centuries, Portsmouth has the world's oldest dry dock. In the sixteenth century, Portsmouth was England's first line of defence during the French invasion of By the early nineteenth century, the world's first mass production line was set up in Portsmouth Dockyard's Block Mills , making it the most industrialised site in the world and birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.